Maier B.O. Epistemology of “inner style” of Wushu: Experience of demystification

Опубликовано в сборнике: Nasilive ve vychove, umeni a sportu. – Praha, 2006. – P. 82 – 88. (ISBN 80-7290-272-5)


One of the most mysterious and intriguing areas of the Chinese culture is the complex of the phenomena united by concept «internal schools» of Wushu. To number of the last now carry: sinichuan, baguajan and taijichuan. Observing of performances of masters of the given schools, it is possible to observe a number of «wonderful» displays. For example, at a contact of the master attacking or instantly runs in «catalepsy» condition, or flies away approximately on 5-7 meters, and the master thus does not show any visible efforts. Or moreover, the master influences on distance with the same displays of a condition attacking. The author of given clause and itself tested similar influences at demonstration trainings with the dean of faculty of Wushu of the Peking institute of physical training when it is possible to rise and fly away strongly from the master of meters on 5, slightly having touched to it. Thus there are no sensations of power influence.
In all three listed directions of Wushu the rate during preparation is done not on «rough» physical strength which is objectively limited, but on perfection of accuracy and a subtlety of distinction of movements as the, and partner, on development of «internal energy» which, according to Chinese’s, is boundless. As wrote Sun Lutan, one of the famous masters taijichuan XX centuries: «In all searches for more thin gradation of quality, not losing sight the whole. And in what yesterday distinguished two-rub qualities, tomorrow you will see weight new (for yourself) subtleties. There are no trifles — there are details. These «slightly» in the sum distinguish the Master from the layman». The modern master of taijichuan Won Kio Kit writes: «Base strategy of fight taijichuan consists in following movements of the opponent for what the calmness and clearness is necessary for the participant of fight think… Force of impact is defined in this case not by force of inertia, and a stream of the internal energy released during the moment of contact». Among specified «internal schools» of Wushu the central position borrows taijichuan as «the highest military art» with which verify the base representations and methods of trainings all the others. In this connection, in the further analysis the basic attention is concentrated to theoretical and empirical knowledge taijichuan. It is connected and that the author of the present work long time was trained and has practical experience of teaching in the given school of Wushu [1]. Here it is important to specify, that as wrote Chen Si: «Though taijichuan is a military art, but it is penetrated by culture».
At the description of system of internal schools of Wushu in the literature often affirms, that concepts which the Chinese teachers use, are constantly transformed and withdraw for the limits, pass in own contrast. In the given self-transformation concept just also realize itself. Speaking one, the Chinese wise men should mean and another, even the return. Therefore complete comprehension not reduced to the general definitions; it is given only in particulars, in individual «cases», in nuances of corporal experience, and than presence of the maximum integrity of life more persistently affirms, manuals of the master are especially concrete and allegoric. By virtue of the symbolical nature the consciousness of the master of Wushu cannot express itself as separate, homogeneous the whole. And to tell about it, it is possible only language of metaphors, language which, more likely, only hints at a «true» condition of the master. For this reason the basic means of training at internal schools of Wushu are the display of movements accompanied by verbal metaphors. Thus there is a gradual parallel complication of studied movements and simultaneously their metaphoric description.
All this leads essential to ontological and epistemology difficulties at attempts to analyze and talk-show to describe within the limits of modern «western» philosophy system of the knowledge disappearing behind the term «internal» schools of Wushu. Really, in tradition of China the given knowledge are studied not so much, how many «are lived» during employment under direction of the skilled instructor. At the same time, studying and practical approbation in China during many centuries of the knowledge named by «internal» schools of Wushu, has led to accumulation within the limits of the given tradition of the richest empirical material on physical, to mental and psychophysiology health of the person, its latent resource qualities, etc. I name the given material empirical as it, as a rule, was studied within the limits of historical and cultural science approaches. For research of essence psychophysiology features of internal schools of Wushu the given material which has been saved up by historians and culturologists, is no more, than empirical base at which there can be significant distortions of a primary material. Besides it is necessary to expand research basis and due to visual supervision over performances of the masters recognized in China, their nonverbal features of behavior. Actually it is a question of research of «a pattern of the superiority» with reference to impellent activity and it psychophysiology features at masters taijichuan, showing «miracles» of nonverbal influence on other people.
Concepts of «pattern» has been entered into a scientific turn G. Bateson which described it as redundancy in enough complex systems where on behavior of an observable part of system, it is possible to bear not casual judgments about the latent part of system. In our situation it is a question of the proved judgment about internal psychophysiology condition of the master of taijichuan on the basis of supervision for: figure and a rhythm of its movements, nonverbal significant signals, verbal metaphors, movements of eyes, functional asymmetry of a body during performance of complexes taijichuan, etc. In terms of a computer metaphor it is possible to tell, that the interface of the communications of the master taijichuan on all its possible levels, verbal and nonverbal is studied, and on the basis of the given studying judgments about its inwardness psychophysiology systems are born. Actually it is a question of the analysis not so much a power (muscular) component of movements, and how many about their information influence on the mechanism of the trigger on the opponent. Such research work was carried out for a number of years on the basis of the Siberian society of taijichuan (Russia). The methodologies of research consist in the regular analysis of a base basis of all styles of taijichuan, teaching at the Peking institute of physical training under direction of professor Men Hui Feng’a. The analysis was spent on the basis of model of met knowledge and a principle of «literalism», and results of research and modeling were represented in «internal» kinesthetic system of coordinates of the description (kinesthetic to a modality engaged).
As a result of the given research program it has been allocated about 20 specific features of patterns of taijichuan and it is shown, how I wrote earlier [1], impellent activity of taijichuan models hierarchy of the evolutionary ancient impellent patterns which at the person in a usual condition are deactivated. In particular, at employment there is an access to system интерорецепторов a human body and transpersonal areas of mentality. Below I shall describe for the first time one of the impellent patterns, which has been found out in movements taijichuan, — a pattern of a four-footed ancestor which, in my opinion, is one of the major components of «information» influence within the limits of the given system of Wushu.
One of prominent features and simultaneously base requirement practically in all managements on taijichuan is necessity of performance of two conditions: «straightness» of a backbone, first of all waists, and «hanging» of a heads, tops, which is «straightness» the top department of a backbone. For example:
— «Let a diaphragm will fill with chi up to a limit, and the backbone will be direct and full spirit».
— «During training it is impossible to incline a head aside, forward and to throw back it back, therefore speak: «the head is suspended», — is similar, that a head prop up any thing … the Case should settle down align center, it is impossible to reject it in any party, a backbone and coccyx should be on one vertical line».
— «Constant curvature of a backbone — a product of a vertical acceleration of people. Straightening curvature of a backbone as demands taijichuan, we restore “ a back of a tiger «,» a belt of a bear”, that is a waist».
On the basis of a principle of literalism we allocate here two major features. The first is a direct backbone, and the second — the «suspended» head. Both of an attribute are characteristic for four-footed mammals: dogs, cats, horses, monkeys, etc. it is valid, the backbone of the four-footed mammal is in a literal sense “direct”, it does not have bends of a human backbone, and a head, also in literal sense of this word, hangs directly forward. Therefore according to a principle of literalism of two attribute — straightness of a backbone and «suspended»of a heads — specify position of the four-footed mammal moving on a surface of the ground on four finiteness. The major difference of movement of the person and other mammals is that at the person an axis of a body — a backbone and directions of moving along a basic surface are perpendicular each other whereas at four-footed mammals of a direction of moving along a surface of the ground and an axis of a body — a backbone are parallel, that the person therefore seems, not having lowered on four-footed, cannot reproduce a pattern of movement of a four-footed ancestor. However in practice all is on the contrary.
Here we put forward a hypothesis, that founders taijichuan have successfully solved the given problem of creation of patterns of movement for vertically moving person which reproduce a pattern of movement four-footed with a backbone parallel to a direction of movement. In this connection it is necessary to note, that in traditional descriptions taijichuan, it is often mentioned, that movements only seem simple enough, but their person only after long regular training reproduces. For example, «movement’s taijichuan from look simple enough, however interactions of moving hands, legs and all other parts of a body not so are easily achievable, as it can seem uninitiated». Besides according to a principle of literalism at the given statement there is a direct instruction, that movement’s taijichuan are simple, but not natural to the person. Besides it is necessary to note, that the term «simplicity» assumes presence of criterion on which it is defined that is simple, and that — is not present. In descriptions of a taijichuan we did not meet obvious criterion of such «simplicity». In connection with the aforesaid we assume, that simplicity of movement’s taijichuan is defined actually by criterion of conformity of movement’s taijichuan to patterns of moving of four-footed ancestors of the person.Movements of the four-footed mammal by special image are coordinated by that it goes on four paws and the main vector of moving is directed along an axis of a body. Thus prominent feature of moving of the four-footed mammal is the specific coordination of forward and back foots considerably differing coordination of legs and hands of the person during walking. The person, having released during evolution forward finiteness for work, has excluded them from process of moving of a body along a surface of the Earth. Essentially having changed an evolutionary line of patterns of movement as first of ancestors began to move on two back finiteness, the person deactivated evolutionary ancient patterns of movement of mammals, has lost «the roots» and the resource conditions incorporated by long evolution.
In such context taijichuan solves a problem of reproduction at the person of coherence of the top and bottom finiteness, characteristic for four-footed ancestors, and, that, — a problem of access to archetype resource conditions. It is necessary to note, that in many styles of Wushu are mentioned imitative techniques where imitation an animal is described through such words as «dexterity of the monkey», «force of a bear», «speed of the leopard», etc. Here according to a principle of literalism is besides traced the instruction on patterns of moving of a four-footed ancestor, but the instruction on the basis of «physical» qualities: speeds, dexterity, force, etc. which has no even a hint on coordination of a specific pattern of moving. In our opinion, from all schools of Wushu only taijichuan regularly solves a problem of access to resources of movement of a four-footed ancestor. Apparently, and consequently taijichuan in China name «the highest fighting art».
With the purpose of acknowledgement of the aforesaid we shall lead the comparative analysis of coordination of movement of forward and back finiteness of the four-footed mammal moving horizontally along an axis of a body; the top and bottom finiteness at the person at usual walking, and also in техниках taijichuan. At the four-footed mammal forward and back finiteness are coordinated during walking as follows: back finiteness, making a start from the ground, remains behind — on a diagonal forward finiteness walks forward. For example, the right back hand-leg remains behind while the left forward hand-leg together with a shoulder leaves forward. At the person at walking coordination other: when the person makes a start, for example, the right leg, forward there is also a right shoulder with a hand. Thus, at the person during usual walking the Cox femoral joint and a humeral belt are connected so, that this or that party of a body «is by turns stretched»: The left leg — the left shoulder, then the right leg — the right shoulder, etc. Meanwhile at an animal during walking «is stretched» a diagonal of a body, for example, the right hinders leg — the left forepaw, then other diagonal, etc.
Unlike usual walking, at performance of exercises taijichuan at the person the same coordination of movements of the top and bottom finiteness, as well as at a four-footed animal is observed. Really, from base «five positions» and «nine movements» taijichuan two positions are static. Two — are devoted to statement of breath and spent at identical «fullness» (congestion) of both legs. From remained ten base техник, connected with moving all body, nine reproduce a pattern of moving of a four-footed animal with its specific coordination of finiteness. Thus, 90 % of the base techniques of taijichuan reproduce a pattern of moving of a four-footed animal that specifies a nonrandom ness of the given pattern in techniques of taijichuan. Moreover, two techniques — «the gold cock costs on one leg «and» the branch of a leg, or a push a leg» — directly reproduce a pattern of moving of an animal as in them, costing on one leg, the person «stretches» itself along a diagonal of a body. Examples of techniques with such specific coordination of hands and legs can be found not only in base exercises, but also in all formal complexes of exercises taijichuan.
With the purpose of acknowledgement of presence of a pattern of a four-footed ancestor in movements taijichuan following experiment was spent. During incubation of birds of nestlings the place where near to sidewalk on distance about 5 meters the jack and where birds have got used to constant presence and walking of the person about them settled down got out in a city park zone. Thus of a bird practically did not pay attention to presence of the person. The situation cardinally varied, if near to a jack the person carried out or a complex taijichuan, or even separate exercises. At birds strongly pronounced protective reaction when on engaged «owners» of a jack aggressively dived was shown, frightening off its shouts, and also all other bird’s ways. Reaction on protection of a jack was similar to occurrence, for example, cats. Hence, birds perceived movements of the person who is engaged taijichuan, as movements of a four-footed ancestor from whom it is necessary to defend a jack.
Thus, the lead analysis shows, that founder’s of taijichuan have solved a unique problem of reproduction by vertically costing person of patterns of moving of a four-footed animal, moving on a surface of the ground along an axis of a body (backbone). In aggregate for more exact occurrence in the given condition of patterns of moving of a four-footed animal in taijichuan it is used not only specific coordination of finiteness, but also as we wrote above, installations on straightening of a backbone and «suspension» of a head, that also it is characteristic for a four-footed ancestor of the person. Hence, we do a conclusion, that taijichuan, alongside with other, there is a complex system for teaching a person to a condition and patterns of moving of a four-footed animal that, apparently, allows to activate evolutionary ancient archetype psychophysiology complexes of a person and to carry out «wonderful» influences on other person, passing sphere of its consciousness. Really, if during fight sub consciousness of one of partners starts to perceive another literally as the wild animal, for example, a tiger, and not due to aggression, and due to figure or a convincing pattern of movements it is easy to predict result of such interaction. There is a so-called double bind when at conscious and not conscious levels of the communications mutually excluding information acts: the consciousness «sees» let and aggressive, but nevertheless the person, and sub consciousness «sees» the wild animal. It seems that the master taijichuan does not make any efforts. However the opponent to run in a catalepsy condition either to escape, or to fall, etc., not understanding, that with it occurs. At the same time, it is necessary to note, that the pattern described in given clause does not settle all hierarchy of evolutionary ancient impellent patterns reproduced taijichuan.


1. Mayer B.O. Epestemology of taijichuan // Pohyb Ve Vychove, umeni a sport.– Praha, 2005.– P. 124-132.

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