Maier B.O. Epistemology of taijichuan

Опубликовано в сборнике: Pohyb Ve Vychove, umeni a sport. – Praha, 2005.– P. 124-132. (ISBN 80-7290-242-3)


Introduction
One of the main features of the Chinese tradition is connected with preservation till now and practical use developed techniques trainings and improvements of the person. Among Chinese techniques of «internal work» in the lead position is borrowed with complete system of improvement and mental-body training of the person «taijichuan» — one of «internal schools» of wushu. The steadfast attention during long time to mental, power and kinesthetic conditions of a person has developed within the limits of system of taijichuan the extremely developed and specific systems of concepts and models. These models cannot be translated adequately on the European languages even for two reasons: sharp difference of structure not only the Chinese language, but cultural tradition and all complex of concepts, organized human life. And the main thing — absence in the European culture so detailed, as in China, development ontology of kinesthetic and the power parties of human life. Besides the Chinese masters for training to methods and techniques of taijichuan widely used the methods of deep psychology based on verbal, corporal and visual metaphors. Generally speaking, any classical text on taijichuan is the developed system of metaphors, and the form of movements of taijichuan, in opinion of the author, among other things, there is corporally a mental-body metaphor of integrity of the person and its unification with the world.
The author for a number of years carried out the complex program of studying of the Chinese art of taijichuan together with the Russian branch of international fund of Milton Erickson. At studying, approbation and interpretation of system of taijichuan the complex approach, including theoretical modeling and practical employment — both personal, and working off of a technique of training on groups engaged various qualifications was used. The author has experience of practice of taijichuan within more than 20 years. The author was trained both to the bases of taijichuan, and a technique of teaching at the professor Men Hui Feng [1]. In theoretical aspect main principles of modern epistemology, deep psychology and principles of modeling of senesces, developed in NLP were used. As methodology of research «the principle of literalism» M. Erickson [2] consisting that human subconscious perceives not only words, signs and other communicative means, but also patterns of movement literally was used. Thus patterns of movement not only other people (including instructors — therefore so direct transfer is important), but also own movements are literally perceived, providing occurrence of the feedback forming steady not realized mental-motions complexes. On the basis of a principle of literalism the general specific features of patterns of movements of taijichuan were allocated. Then on the basis of the approach of metamodelling intrinsic characteristics of the given patterns were defined and their analogies in evolutionary history of mankind were searched.
Semantics of movements of taijichuan
The analysis of semantics was spent with reference to five modern styles of taijichuan. For specification of semantic attributes of movements except for the translation literature describing metaphors of taijichuan, and interview of instructors us were used documentary video films of execution of taijichuan by various masters. In particular, performances of the traditional recognized masters were analyzed. The general mental-semantic determinants of all five listed styles of taijichuan are following attributes: representation about «the power center «, located in the bottom part of a stomach, and, accordingly, about «small internal sphere», located in a stomach and symbolizing integrity. Though it is direct and it is not underlined, we consider, that the description of isomorphism of conditions of the given small internal sphere (a mental-semantic image of sphere) and movements of finiteness and moving of a trunk is observed. As external display of this isomorphism is regularly emphasized necessity of a coordination and integrity of movements of all body and finiteness. For example, «one has moved — there is no nothing moving» and «… a part behind a part consistently incorporate, communicate with each other, not interrupting, making a single whole». In system of taijichuan the set of the specifying requirements connected with it to rules of coordination of position of a body and movement of the finiteness directed on achievement of specified isomorphism is entered also. Alongside with it from movements presence of «growing» in a surface is required at «generation of force» and preservation of «vivacity» and speed of moving between such moments.
Besides at the description of taijichuan all styles there is, first, a chain of base concepts — «czin» (elastic force), «chi» (energy), and «shen» (consciousness). Secondly — presence, at first sight, the inconsistent description of movements of taijichuan as weakened, soft, fluid and simultaneously elastic, accompanied «vivacity of moving». In an obvious kind the sanction of this opposition in the literature is not described and, apparently, remains for insight. In our opinion, one of possible variants of the decision is an introduction nominalization concept of «structure» when through joints of a body of the person as though «the tense string» is passed, and parts of a body of the person is represented in the form of «beads on a string «. In such metaphor it is easy to present, that at a tension of «string» all «beads» form uniform flexible «switch», uniform dynamic structure, elasticity and frequencies of which mechanical fluctuations are adjusted by the general tension of «string».
Let’s pass to revealing distinctions of semantics of movements of taijichuan with reference to various directions. It was possible to reveal a number of characteristic semantic attributes of movements and to isolate on them two groups among the set forth above styles. In particular, the first group is made according to the allocated attributes with styles Yang, Sun, Wu, Wu (Yuxiang) which in the further statement we shall name the uniform term — «traditional taijichuan». The Second group is actually style Chen which, in our opinion, sharply differs from traditional taijichuan. Therefore taijichuan of style Chen in the further we shall define the term «Chen taijichuan «.
Prominent feature of traditional taijichuan is practically full absence, both in semantics of the description, and in patterns of moving of kinetic attributes of shock actions by hands and the legs, finiteness carried out due to power dispersal. It is possible to tell, that traditional taijichuan not only in the verbal description, but also the patterns of movements is contrast to shock techniques, both the European boxing, and the Japanese karate. As opposed to it for taijichuan of style Chen, on our supervision, presence of set of attributes of shock and breaking, breaking off movements is characteristic. However, in comparison with boxing and karate, difference taijichuan style Chen is characterized by presence strongly pronounced spiral dispersal of trajectories with a set of speed of impacts, unlike rectilinear in boxing and carat. Alongside with them in taijichuan of style Chen rectilinear impacts, however, more likely as exception, and basically — in the second complex which has the independent name «paochui» and is, apparently, derivative from Shoaling styles of wushu are used also. In our opinion, it is essentially important, that, despite of presence shock impellent techniques in taijichuan of style Chen, in semantics of its description practically there is no term «impact». Instead of it words are applied «to compress», «to pull, «extend», etc. All it shows, that now taijichuan of style Chen borrows intermediate position between traditional taijichuan and «external schools» of wushu. In the further we shall concentrate attention on traditional taijichuan, as last a long historical way and saved up great volume of the approved empirical and phenomenological material.
Influence of taijichuan on structure of mentality
Object of research was the group on taijichuan of style Yung, engaged on the given system not less than 10 years. Age of instructors was from 30 till 45 years. In research standard psychological techniques – color test, and also the method of free interview directed on revealing of dynamics of a psychophysical and mental condition surveyed according to introspection have been used. The text of interview was a basis for carrying out of the semantic analysis with use of multilevel structure of the color image received during testing by color methods. Testing was spent twice: before the beginning of training and after training during which instructors carried out and repeated a standard complex taijichuan continuously within a one hour.
Comparison of color diagnostic attributes with results of the semantic analysis has allowed establishing, in our opinion, with reference to taijichuan the fact of existence of precisely expressed correlation between the diagnostic attributes which have been found out at testing on color method, and the basic semantic determinants. In particular, color attributes characterized a condition of vegetative nervous system, processes of integration at various functional levels, increase of sensitivity the processes occurring in own body and mentality, and readiness to refuse egocentric qualities of the person. Besides it was observed: aspiration to removal of contradictions and elimination of distinctions, decrease in a conflict ness; expansion of safe psychological space; development of communicative abilities; essential activation of creative abilities. The brightest semantic determinants were a condition of pacification, sincere and corporal rest, immersing in «wisdom of an organism», search of harmony, harmony, enrichment of a spiritual life, experience of a condition of integrity, normalization of vegetative functions, and sensation of deep communications of the spiritual, mental and corporal beginning of the person.
The described diagnostic attributes confirm representation about system of taijichuan as about corporally focused art of “individuation”, or “intrinsic transformation” of the person by means of which achievement not only unities of movements is possible, but also integrity of mentality. Obtained data allow assuming, that the touch information which arises at performance of exercises, will be transformed to a signal adjusting activity physiological, psychophysical, psycho-emotion and cognitive system of the person. In our opinion, art of taijichuan provides semantic completeness of the received information that enables to integrate corporal and psychological processes into uniform harmonious system and to raise a level physical, psychological and social adaptation engaged.
Patterns of movements of taijichuan
Traditional masters during execution of taijichuan show supervision and the comparative analysis of movements of traditional masters and modern representatives of schools that, as a rule, have a pattern of movement, characteristic for the changed conditions of consciousness. During their performances characteristic attributes of a trance movements, described by Milton Erickson [2] are observed. In particular, movements of finiteness are avaricious, economical; moving of all body are complete, a body direct; the head the turns accompanies with movement of a body and finiteness; each new moving begins without preliminary dispersal. It is characteristic, that all formal exercises of traditional taijichuan begin with a slow raising simultaneously both direct hands from below up to a level of shoulders that is described still by M. Erickson as a method of introduction in trance, received the name «a levitation of a hand». Moreover, in the metaphoric description of this movement in the literature on taijichuan it is underlined, that hands rise «as though by itself » — as we speak, «levitated», that is the direct verbal instruction on occurrence in a trance condition is given. Thus, a characteristic attribute traditional taijichuan in execution of old masters is presence of a condition enough a deep trance. Thus essential difference traditional taijichuan from the «European» methods of work with the person consists in a trance condition available formalized impellent activity. It allows training to keep communication with surrounding reality, to supervise it (quality of fighting art) and also to adjust independently depth of immersing in a trance.
To isolate types of patterns of movements of traditional taijichuan, we shall consider the description so-called «internal forces» as these «forces» we consider, metaphorically describe some distinction of impellent images. Such types of «internal forces» in the literature on taijichuan it is described more than hundred. However from their all set it is possible to allocate only eight base “forces” which unconditionally are considered as the cores in all styles of taijichuan. In our works it has been shown, that these eight base types of «force» are actually biomechanical fashions in model of elastic structure of a human body. To these fashions — to types of fluctuations there correspond quite certain psychomotor images which are subjectively felt as various «forces» and consequently refer to according to various cult urological or paradigms: Chinese — kinds of forces, and European — patterns of movements.
Besides patterns of real movements of taijichuan, by results of supervision semantics of experts can be precisely described as: «moving in the viscous environment» along a horizontal surface of a support, or the opponent; «pulling»; «twisting to the right-to the left around of a vertical axis «. The analysis of video data and received semantics of movements shows, that according to rules of combination theory from three conditions — «moving in the viscous environment», «pulling» and «twisting», each of which has two oppositions, it is possible to receive the description, both patterns, and metaphors of eight base «forces — czin» of taijichuan. Thus, isomorphism of a set from three basic conditions of movement isolated as a result of the biomechanical modeling analysis, and a set from three conditions of movement of the traditional masters who have been found out by results of supervision over them and by expert estimations is observed. In this connection there is a question: how structurally to describe these three conditions in language of psychophysiology and whether there correspond to them any reflexes?
In our opinion, the answer is in the field of crossing representations about internal reflexes and representations about prenatal archetypes of the person that is archetypes of collective subconscious, connected with formation of the person during from conception till its birth. The characteristic feature of early prenatal stages is the morphological form of a human germ in the form of a hollow tube. Actually at this stage of development the germ has the morphology close to an ancient intestines organism. We pay to this special attention as all semantics of the description, if to remove nominalization concepts of «chi», «integrity of movement from the center», etc., it is filled by instructions on importance of a stomach, an intestines, a digestive path, that, generally speaking, it is characteristic and for modern psychotherapeutic methods. Moreover, we consider that the system of taijichuan as a method of training of psychomotor skills is directed on reception of access to the ancient impellent centers of the person connected with a stage of an «ancient intestines organism», with the purpose of their recycling in a daily life. Really, alongside with semantics, the conditions described above by results of supervision movements (patterns) of masters of traditional taijichuan — » moving in the viscous environment», «pulling», «turns» more all are similar to moving of a ancient intestines organism, or a worm and occur, apparently, by means of tonic reductions of muscles, especially bottom finiteness. Really, «…internal conditioned reflexes are formed at a combination of an unconditioned reflex to irritation of receptors of internal bodies (a stomach, intestines…). The receptors incorporated in these bodies, are raised at mechanical irritations, increase of pressure in bodies… The Most widespread is the technique (creations)… specific internal-defensive conditioned reflex on irritation of receptors of a stomach and intestines» [3].
The specific internal-defensive conditioned reflex is formed in taijichuan as follows: Irritation of thin intestines causes a reflex of skeletal muscles of a wall of a stomach, and also reflex tonic and convulsive movements of finiteness, especially back. On the basis of data of internal unconditioned reflex at its combination to specific movements of taijichuan, mechanically irritating intestines due to compression-expansion of a stomach, it is formed internal conditioned reflex of intestines in the form of specific movements of a trunk and finiteness on external pushes, compression, pressings, sharp movements, etc. Generally speaking, internal conditioned reflexes are formed and consolidated more slowly, in comparison with external reflexes. Internal condition reflex long time remains unstable, appearing, disappearing. Therefore, as it was repeatedly specified in the traditional literature, during learning of the patterns of taijichuan observance of the requirement of sequence, a continuity and duration of process of training, accuracy of reproduction of eight basic patterns during employment, and also the continuous control over correctness of patterns of movement from the trainer is essentially important. Really, discrepancy of reproduction of patterns of taijichuan does not allow to reach progress as actually does not give an opportunity to be generated specific for taijichuan’s internal conditioned reflex. In this connection in formation of the taijichuan’s internal conditioned reflex various ways of its reinforcement should play especially important role. As we consider, one of the basic ways of a reinforcement is, in particular, the rule of a special arrangement of language in a mouth as language is actually a part of the digestive device, and it has a direct communication both with intestines, and with deep layers of mentality.
Features of rhythmic and other
As shown in the previous section, a basis of patterns of traditional taijichuan is the intrinsic motion-defensive conditioned reflex. However our supervision and the analysis of impellent activity of traditional master’s show, that alongside with specified above a reflex of exercise of traditional taijichuan considers also other reflexes. Supervision over masters of traditional taijichuan shows, that they move in the certain rhythm, carrying out movements on carry of weight of a body from one leg on another. Duration of one pattern of movement makes, as a rule, 2-3 seconds, and then there is a transition to a following pattern of movement. Hence, during performance of single exercise of taijichuan internal conditioned reflex there are characteristic frequencies of moving at space of 0,5-0,3 Hz. From biomechanics well-known, that the centre of gravity of vertically costing person constantly makes small fluctuations named by a tremor of the centre of gravity. The basic harmonic of a tremor of the centre of gravity is concentrated to frequencies of 0,48-0,32 Hz and has amplitude some millimeters. Hence, the master of traditional taijichuan moves in a resonance with a tremor of the centre of gravity, ordering a randomness of such tremor, maybe, cleaning this tremor and transforming it to the macroscopically movements of all body coordinated with tonic reductions of muscles of finiteness. Apparently, such «mastering» by a tremor also generates the well-known power of taijichuan.
Next, displays so-called «the lifting reflex», consisting tonic pulling up of legs at vertical accelerations, have been found out during supervision over pair exercises of masters of traditional taijichuan. During these exercises named «pushing hands «, people aspire to push each other due to complete movement of all body. Thus powerful enough pushes when the person flies away from the master on distance up to 5-7 meters are observed. Prominent feature of such flight from a push is that the person flies away lengthways, and is frequent and above a surface of the ground, not having an opportunity to stop and touching legs which are «convulsively” tightened as in «the lifting reflex». Impression such as though the costing person was deprived with support. The close analysis of dynamics of pair exercise shows, that the direction of a push really has the powerful short vertical component which is making active «the lifting reflex» and depriving the opponent of a support.
Conclusions
In our research the basic biomechanical concepts, psychological features of training and its results, semantics of the description of movements, their rhythmic, and also presence of patterns of movements, isomorphic to patterns of movement of evolutionary ancestors of the person have been considered. It has been as a result shown, that impellent activity of taijichuan models hierarchy of evolutionary ancient impellent patterns which at the person in a usual condition is deactivated. In particular, at employment there is an access to internal system of a human body, than access to prenatal areas of mentality is provided. Taijichuan there is difficultly organized psychomotor complex which is carried out in the changed condition of consciousness, providing system access to evolutionary ancient impellent centers and entering the person in resource conditions. Besides this, there is an integration of various spheres of mentality that allows the person to pass a way of individuation, or intrinsic transformation.
Besides the system of corporal metaphors on the basis of a principle of literalism which allows reducing essentially time of studying technique of taijichuan has been developed. Practical work with students has shown, that correctly organized employment taijichuan sharply raise adaptable opportunities of the person, psychological stability, promote development of creative opportunities, and also harmonize mutual relations of the person with a social environment.


1. Men Hui Feng — the professor, the chapter of faculty wushu of the Beijing university of physical culture, the assistant to the dean of faculty wushu the same university, member of association on studying Chinese wushu, the founder of complexes of taijichuan — 42 and 48 forms. The author of books «The Textbook of shaolin wushu», «Chinese wushu», «Introduction in 48 forms of taijichuan «; the co-author of books «48 forms of taijichuan” etc. In 1981 was the main trainer of 1-st world championship on wushu.
2. Erickson, Rossi, Rossi. Hypnotic Realities. The Introduction of Clinical Hypnosis and Forms of Indirect Suggestion. — New York: Irvington Publishers, Inc., 1976.
3. Zambrzhitsky I.A. The meal center of a brain. — Moscow: «Medicine», 1989. — p. 143.

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